Kroll, Jerome. (February 1976). "Racial Patterns of Military Crimes in Vietnam."
Psychiatry, 39(1), 51-64.
The abstract provided in the article reads:
"As part of a larger study of U.S. soldiers who committed offenses while serving
in Vietnam and were sentenced to the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas,
certain patterns emerged concerning the racial incidence of the types of crimes committed.
Twice as many white soldiers as black soldiers were incarcerated for AWOL, while twice as
many black soldiers as white soldiers were incarcerated for refusal to go out to the field
for combat. Twice as many black soldiers as white soldiers were incarcerated for violent crimes
against other U.S. soldiers, while six times as many white soldiers as black soldiers were
incarcerated for violent crimes against Vietnamese persons. In terms of incidence of
incarcerations per 100,000 soldiers in Vietnam, the incarceration rate of black soldiers
greatly exceeded that of white soldiers, except for the category of violence against a
It would appear that the black and white soldiers perceived and reacted differently to the
Vietnam experiences. A thesis will be developed here that the bases of the differential
perceptions are the different background experiences which these groups brought with them to
Vietnam. The white soldiers generalized certain racial prejudices to include the Vietnamese,
and consequently viewed the Vietnamese with a mixture of suspicion, fearfulness, and disdain.
The black soldiers tended to view the Vietnamese with greater sympathy and when not in actual
combat looked upon the white soldiers as enemies and the Vietnamese as allies and fellow
sufferers. The impact of combat pressures, maintenance of buddy relationships, and the terror
of being passive in combat are discussed as they relate to the racial issues."